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Knowledge
Base

Glossary

application of knowledge

"The term application is used to refer to the iterative process by which knowledge is put into practice."

Source: National Center for Dissemination of Disability Research. What is knowledge Translation? Technical brief numbr 10. 2005. Available at: http://www.ncddr.org/du/products/focus/focus10. Accessed Feb 17, 2006.

continuing education

"planned educational activities intended to further the education and training of specific health professionals of the enhancement of practice, education, administration and research."

Source: Uniformed University Services for Health Sciences (http://www.usuhs.mil/che/definitions.htm accessed Jan 26, 2006) (Graham et al, 2006)

continuing professional development

"is the process by which health professionals keep updated to meet the needs of patients, the health services, and their own professional development. It includes the continuous acquisition of new knowledge, skills, and attitudes to enable competent practices."

Source: Peck, C., McCall, M., McLaren, B., Rotem, T. Continuing medical education and continuing professional development: International comparisons. BMJ 2000; 320:432-435. (Graham et al. 2006)

diffusion

"the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among members of a social system"

Source: (Rogers EM. Diffusion of Innovations. New York: Free Press, 1995.) (Graham et al, 2006)

dissemination

"Dissemination involves identifying the appropriate audience, and tailoring the message and medium to the audience. Dissemination activities can include such things as summary/briefings to stakeholders, educational sessions with patients, practitioners and/or policy makers, engaging knowledge users in developing and executing dissemination/implementation plan, tools creation, and media engagement."

Source: Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (http://www.chsrf.ca/keyslglossary_e.php accessed Jan 24, 2006).

exchange

"The exchange of knowledge refers to the interaction between the knowledge user and the researcher resulting in mutual learning. Adopting Canadian Health Services Research Foundation's (CHSRF) definition knowledge exchange is 'collaborative problem-solving between researchers and decision makers that happens through linkage and exchange. Effective knowledge exchange involves interaction between decision makers and researchers and results in mutual learning through the process of planning, producing, disseminating, and applying existing or new research in decision-making.'"

Source: Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (http://www.chsrf.ca/keyslglossary_e.php

accessed Jan 24, 2006).

ethically sound

"Ethically sound knowledge translation activities for improved health are those that are consistent with ethical principles and norms, social values as well as legal and other regulatory frameworks- while keeping in mind that principles, values and laws can compete among and between each other at any given point in time."

Source: Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (http://www.chsrf.ca/keyslglossary_e.php

accessed Jan 24, 2006).

implementation science

"scientific methods to promote the systematic uptake of clinical research findings and other evidence-based practices into routine practice and, hence, to improve the quality and effectiveness of health care."

Source: (Foy R, Eccles M, Grimshaw J. Why does primary care need more implementation research? Fam Pract 2001; 18:353-355) (Graham et al, 2006)

Source: Implementation science is a UK term for knowledge translation. In addition to the definition here, please also see those for knowledge translation.

knowledge brokering

"All the activity that links decision makers with researchers, facilitating their interaction so that they are able to better understand each other?s goals and professional cultures, influence each other?s work, forge new partnerships, and promote the use of research-based evidence in decision-making."

Source: http://www.chsrf.ca/brokering/index_e.php

knowledge transfer and exchange

"a systematic approach to capture, collect and share tacit knowledge in order for it to become explicit knowledge. By doing so, this process allows for individuals and/or organizations to access and utilize essential information, which previously was known intrinsically to only one or a small group of people."

Source: Government of Alberta http://www.pao.gov.ab.ca/learning/knowledge/transferguide/index. Assessed Jan 2004, 2006

"Successful knowledge transfer involves much more than a one way, linear diffusion of knowledge and skills from a university to industry; it depends on access to people, information and infrastructure."

Source: UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) (http://www.pparc.ac.uk/in/aboutkt.asp accessed Jan 24, 2006).

"Knowledge transfer is about transferring good ideas, research results and skills between universities, other research organizations, business and the wider community to enable innovative new products and services to be developed."

Source: UK Office of Science and Technology (http://www.ost.gov.uk accessed Jan 24, 2006).

knowledge translation

"Knowledge translation is a dynamic and iterative process that includes synthesis, dissemination, exchange and ethically sound application of knowledge to improve the health of Canadians, provide more effective health services and products and strengthen the health care system.

"This process takes place within a complex system of interactions between researchers and knowledge users which may vary in intensity, complexity and level of engagement depending on the nature of the research and the findings as well as the needs of the particular knowledge user...

"Implicit in the CIHR definition is the notion that evaluation and monitoring of KT initiatives, processes, and activities are key components of the KT process."

Source: Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR), 'About Knowledge Translation'. Available at: http://www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/29418.html. Accessed Feb 7, 2008.

"The collaborative and systematic review, assessment, identification, aggregation and practical application of high-quality disability and rehabilitation research by key stakeholders (i.e., consumers, researchers, practitioners, policy makers) for the purpose of improving the lives of individuals with disabilities."

Source: (US National Center for the Dissemination of Disability Research (NCDDR)) (Graham et al, 2006)

"Knowledge translation is a process by which relevant research information is made available and accessible for practice, planning, and policy-making through interactive engagement with audiences. CHER aims to bring its research findings to the scientific community, to policy makers, to participants and the general public through the use of relevant and effective media. Effective knowledge translation is necessary if key messages from research are to change and improve policy and practice."

Source: http://www.cher.ubc.ca/research/knowledgetransfer.asp accessed Jan 30 2008

Source: For user-generated definitions of knowledge translation, please see http://whatiskt.wikispaces.com/.

Source: Implementation science is a UK term for knowledge translation. In addition to the definitions here, please also see those for implementation science.

knowledge utilization

"Knowledge exchange is collaborative problem-solving between researchers and exchange decision makers that happens through linkage and exchange. Effective knowledge exchange involves interaction between decision makers and researchers and results in mutual learning through the process of planning, producing, disseminating, and applying existing or new research in decision-making."

Source: Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (http://www.chsrf.ca/keyslglossary_e.php

accessed Jan 24, 2006).

meta-analysis

"A systematic review that uses quantitative methods to synthesize and summarize the results."

Source: Straus SE, Richardson WS, Glasziou P, Haynes RB, Evidence-Based Medicine: How to Practice and Teach EBM, Third Edition. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone: Edinburg, 2005, pg. 281

meta-synthesis

"entails a comparison, translation, and analysis of original findings from which new interpretations are generated, encompassing and distilling the meanings in the constituent studies."

Source: Zimmer L. Qualitative meta-synthesis: a question of dialoguing with text. Journal of Advanced Nursing 53(3), 311-318, February 2006.

realist review

"relatively new strategy for synthesizing research which has an explanatory rather that judgmental focus, it seeks to unpack the mechanism of how complex programmes work (or why they fail) in particular contexts and settings."

Source: Pawson R., Greenhalgh T., Harvey G., & Walshe K. Realist review ? a new method of systematic review design for complex policy interventions. Journal of Health Services Research and Policy, Vol. 10, Suppl. 1 July 2005 pg. 1-14

research transfer

See "knowledge transfer and exchange"

research utilization

"process by which specific research-based knowledge (science) is implemented in practice"

Source: Estabrooks CA, Wallin L, Mimer M. Measuring knowledge utilization in health care. It-it J Policy Eval Manage 2003; 1:3?36.

scoping review

"involves a search of the literature to determine what sorts of studies addressing the systematic review question have been carried out, where they are published, in which databases they have been indexed, what sorts of outcomes they have assessed, and in which population."

Source: Petticrew M, and Roberts H. Systematic Reviews in Social Sciences: A Practical Guide. John Wiley & Sons, 2005. pg. 48.

synthesis

"Synthesis in this context means the contextualization and integration of research findings of individual research studies within the larger body of knowledge on the topic. A synthesis must be reproducible and transparent in its methods, using quantitative and/or qualitative methods. It could take the form of a systematic review; follow the methods developed by the Cochrane Collaboration; result from a consensus conference or expert panel and may synthesize qualitative or quantitative results. Realist syntheses, narrative syntheses, meta-analyses, meta-syntheses and practice guidelines are all forms of synthesis."

Source: Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (http://www.chsrf.ca/keyslglossary_e.php accessed Jan 24, 2006).